On the next Philosophy in Action Radio, I'll answer questions on the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, living joyfully, defending abortion rights, and more. The live broadcast begins at 8 am PT / 9 MT / 10 CT / 11 ET on Sunday, 20 April 2014. If you can't attend live, be sure to listen to the podcast later.


Career

  • Q&A: Living on Passive Income: 12 Jan 2014, Question 2
  • Question: Is it moral to live on passive income or just work a "four hour work week"? Would that be compatible with the idea that a person's productive work should be his central purpose? If a person is so productive that he is able to enjoy a great life by only working a few hours per week, would it be wrong for that person to spend the rest of his time on travel, relationships, hobbies, self-improvement, education, and other non-productive interests?

    Tags: Business, Capitalism, Career, Central Purpose, Ethics, Hobbies, Passive Income, Productiveness, Productivity

  • Q&A: Accepting Government Welfare: 10 Nov 2013, Question 2
  • Question: Should a person without other options accept welfare from the government? I've had generalized anxiety disorder for as long as I can remember. I live in Sweden, and my government has so many labor regulations that no business can hire me, and charities don't exist to help me. Is it wrong, in such a case, to accept government assistance? I don't have any savings, and it seems like my only other options are criminal activity and suicide.

    Tags: Career, Ethics, Meaning, Mental Health, Purpose, Welfare

  • Q&A: Identifying a Central Purpose: 15 Sep 2013, Question 1
  • Question: How can I identify my own central purpose? I understand the importance of a central purpose to organize my values and pursuits. However, I'm not sure how to identify what my central purpose is. What if I have a few major pursuits, but none dominates the others? What if my career is in flux – or not yet settled? Also, how concrete or abstract should my central purpose be?

    Tags: Career, Central Purpose, Ethics, Hobbies, Life, Productiveness, Work

  • Q&A: The Value of a Central Purpose: 8 Sep 2013, Question 1
  • Question: What is the meaning and value of a central purpose? In "The Objectivist Ethics," Ayn Rand says that "productive work is the central purpose of a rational man's life, the central value that integrates and determines the hierarchy of all his other values." I find that confusing. What constitutes a central purpose? How does it function in a person's life, particularly in relation to other values like a spouse, children, and hobbies? Should I be worried if I don't have a clearly identified central purpose?

    Tags: Career, Central Purpose, Ethics, Hobbies, Life, Productiveness, Work

  • Q&A: Poor Communication from the Boss: 19 May 2013, Question 2
  • Question: How can I make my boss more communicative? My boss hardly ever tells me company news affecting my projects, even when critical. As a result, I've wasted days and weeks on useless work, and I've gotten into needless conflicts with co-workers. I'm always guessing at what I should be doing, and I just hate that. What can I do to make my boss to be more communicative with me?

    Tags: Business, Career, Communication, Job, Personality, Psychology

  • Interview: William E. Perry on What It's Really Like to Be a Prosecutor: 30 Jan 2013
  • Summary: What is the work of a prosecutor really like? In this interview, former Arizona prosecutor William E. Perry discussed the cases he prosecuted and various issues in criminal law – including the role of juries, standards of evidence, the drug war, confessions, and plea bargaining.

    Tags: Career, Crime, Government, Law, Police, Punishment, Rights

  • Q&A: Poor Effort in a Terrible Job: 9 Dec 2012, Question 3
  • Question: Is it wrong for a person to do less than his best at work? At work, I used to go above and beyond my basic obligations routinely. However, I was never recognized or rewarded for my superior performance. Instead, I was paid the same as those who barely functioned in their jobs. To this day, my employer uses only collective or team recognition; he does not appreciate individuals. Also, those who do poorly or make serious mistakes are not being disciplined, while those of us who work hard are given more duties. My response has been to lower my own work output. While I meet the minimum standards of my employment and still do far more than my equally paid coworkers, I am not performing nearly close to the level I could. Is that wrong of me? Should I do my best at work, even though my employer doesn't seem to value that? Should I continue to suggest ideas for improvement – and perhaps work on them on the side, in secret, if ignored?

    Tags: Ambition, Business, Career, Character, Ethics, Productiveness, Work

  • Q&A: Working for the IRS Versus Collecting Welfare: 14 Oct 2012, Question 2
  • Question: Is it wrong to accept Social Security disability benefits when I could work? I'm blind. Although I can work, my recent job at the IRS seemed to be so soul-draining and vexing that I determined to look elsewhere for employment. However, jobs are limited right now, and I am not sure what else I want to do at this point. Was it right for me to quit my job before having the next one lined up? In the meantime, is it moral for me to receive Social Security? Have I gone from being a maker to a taker?

    Tags: Career, Disability, Ethics, Government, Integrity, Welfare, Work

  • Q&A: Productiveness Versus Recreation: 23 Sep 2012, Question 4
  • Question: Is time for recreation compatible with the virtue of productiveness? If productive work is the means by which I achieve my values, how can one justify spending even one minute doing something that doesn't propel me toward some value? I am specifically referring to leisure activities like going to the movies, playing video games, and following sports. I'm not referring to activities that have obvious benefits like sleep, exercise, or cooking healthy food. What about hobbies that are enriching, but ultimately have no productive purpose like dance or guitar lessons (assuming I don't want to perform in either context as a career)? Is pursuing such hobbies wrong?

    Tags: Career, Ethics, Productiveness, Productivity, Values, Work

  • Q&A: Sacrifice in War: 5 Aug 2012, Question 3
  • Question: Is it a sacrifice for a soldier to fight for his country? Most people regard fighting for one's country to be a glorious sacrifice. The soldier risks life and limb, but gets little in return. Assuming a proper government and a justified war for self-defense, is serving in the military a sacrifice? And if so, is that sacrifice noble?

    Tags: Career, Egoism, Ethics, Foreign Policy, Free Society, Integrity, Military, Risk, Sacrifice, Self-Interest, Self-Sacrifice, War

  • Q&A: Parenting as a Central Purpose: 24 Jun 2012, Question 2
  • Question: Can parenting be a central purpose in life? Many people think that only a career can serve as a person's central purpose. They think that a central purpose must be remunerative, and that it can't be merely temporary. Is that right? Can parenting be a person's central purpose, even if only for a few years?

    Tags: Career, Central Purpose, Children, Family, Objectivism, Parenting, Purpose

  • Q&A: Responding to an Unjust Firing: 20 May 2012, Question 2
  • Question: Should an employer have to explain and justify his firing of an employee? Should an employer be able to fire an employee for some alleged misconduct, even though the employer never bothered to verify the misconduct, nor asked the employee for his side of the story? For example, suppose that when the employee shows up for work he is simply told that he's been fired because someone made a complaint about him. The employee could easily prove the complaint to be false but the employer isn't concerned with proof or lack thereof. The employee's reputation in the eyes of possible future employers is damaged, even if the employer never discusses the firing with anyone else. In such a case, should the employee be able to sue for having been fired without proper cause?

    Tags: Business, Career, Defamation, Free Society, Justice, Law, Reputation, Responsibility, Rights, Torts, Work

  • Q&A: The Morality of Working a Government Job: 29 Apr 2012, Question 2
  • Question: Is it moral to work for the IRS? Is it morally wrong to work for government agencies like the IRS (or equivalent tax bureaus), IAS (Indian Administrative Services), or the EPA? I'm an advocate of free markets. Would I be a hypocrite to work for such illegitimate government agencies?

    Tags: Career, Ethics, Government, Integrity, Work

  • Chat: Getting More Done: 25 Apr 2012
  • Summary: Do you want to accomplish more? Do you find yourself spinning your wheels or procrastinating on your projects?

    Tags: Career, GTD, Motivation, Productiveness, Productivity, Purpose, Self-Control, Willpower, Work

  • Q&A: Encouraging Friends to Be More Purposeful: 22 Apr 2012, Question 4
  • Question: How can I encourage my friends to be more purposeful and passionate? I have been certain about my life's purpose – in terms of what career and personal creative works I'd like to pursue – from a young age. I've had friends who are above-average in their academic and career work, and who explore various hobbies, but they do not pursue those activities with eager passion. They say that they "do not know what they want out of life" and have not "found their calling." What is at the root of uncertainty about one's purpose? Is there a moral breach involved? How can I motivate, encourage, and inspire my friends?

    Tags: Career, Communication, Conflict, Ethics, Friendship, Productiveness, Purpose, Relationships

  • Q&A: Potential Employers Demanding Facebook Logins: 1 Apr 2012, Question 3
  • Question: Should employers ask applicants for their Facebook logins and passwords? More employers are asking job applicants for their Facebook logins and passwords as part of a background check. Of course, applicants can decline, in which case they might not be considered for the job. Should employers be asking for this information? Is it proper to want to check on the online activities of potential employees? Is that an invasion of privacy? How should someone respond if asked by a potential employer?

    Tags: Career, Contracts, Law, Law, Privacy, Work

  • Q&A: The Problem of Too Many Commitments: 25 Mar 2012, Question 2
  • Question: How can I manage my projects better? Too often, I'm overwhelmed by the sheer volume of projects on my agenda. Because I'm overcommitted, I'll miss important deadlines or allow some projects to be delayed into oblivion. Other times, my work is rushed and sloppy. Sometimes I feel so overwhelmed that I become paralyzed, and then I don't get any work done. What can I do to manage my various work and home projects better, so that I keep making progress on what really matters to me?

    Tags: Career, Ethics, Honesty, Integrity, Introspection, Productiveness, Productivity, Purpose, Work

  • Q&A: Ayn Rand's View of Women: 11 Mar 2012, Question 1
  • Question: Did Ayn Rand regard women as inferior to men? I admire Ayn Rand, and I've used her philosophy in my business and personal life, but I disagree with her view of women. In her article "About a Woman President," Ayn Rand said that "For a woman qua woman, the essence of femininity is hero-worship – the desire to look up to man. 'To look up' does not mean dependence, obedience or anything implying inferiority." Yet her view seems to imply inferiority in practice: Rand says that no woman should aspire to be U.S. President because that would put her in the psychologically unbearable position of not having any man to look up to. So, does Rand's view imply that women are inferior to men? What is the factual basis of her view, if any? Do you agree with her?

    Tags: Ayn Rand, Career, Ethics, Gender, Government, Independence, Objectivism, Psychology, Rationality, Sex

  • Q&A: Interest in a Lover's Writings: 19 Feb 2012, Question 4
  • Question: Should a person always be interested in the creative works of a romantic interest or lover? I'm romantically interested in a woman who writes as her career. While my admiration of her is based in her virtues and even heroic qualities, I'm don't find the subjects of her writing to be particularly interesting. If I were to begin dating this woman, should I read everything that she's written and writes?

    Tags: Career, Dating, Relationships, Romance

  • Q&A: Liking But Not Loving Your Career: 12 Feb 2012, Question 1
  • Question: What should I do if I have a good job but not burning professional ambition? I have a good job that pays well. I perform my job well to the best of my ability. But I don't feel about it the same way that Howard Roark felt about the field of architecture in The Fountainhead or that Dagny felt about the railroad business in Atlas Shrugged. I don't hate my job – I do enjoy the work and the people I work with. But it's not my burning passion. On a scale of 1-to-10, my paying job (and the overall field) is a 7, but I also have various non-paying outside hobbies and activities that are more of a 8 or 9 for me. Should I try to cultivate a strong passion for my paying job? Or look for a different line of work? Or ramp up my pursuit of various hobbies and outside activities that give me greater satisfaction on the side?

    Tags: Career, Emotions, Hobbies, Productiveness, Values, Work

  • Q&A: The Morality of Selling Your Body: 2 Oct 2011, Question 4
  • Question: Is it moral to sell your body? Selling our bodies or certain parts of them are perfectly acceptable in our society, such as being an egg or sperm donor, being a pregnancy surrogate, or selling hair. But others are condemned, such as prostitution or selling organs. Where should the line be drawn? When is it moral to sell a part of oneself – and why?

    Tags: Business, Career, Ethics, Medicine, Sex

  • Q&A: Regretting Time Spent at Work: 25 Sep 2011, Question 3
  • Question: At death, should a person regret all the years spent at work? I often hear the saying, "No one ever laid on their death bed wishing they had spent more time in the office." What should a person think of that – and of the fact that so many people agree with it – in light of the virtue of productiveness?

    Tags: Career, Death, Emotions, Productiveness, Work

  • Q&A: Working for a Statist Company: 28 Aug 2011, Question 4
  • Question: Is it immoral to work for a company that uses government to eliminate or hamper the competition? For example, if a company has brought antitrust lawsuits against its competitors, should you refuse to work for them?

    Tags: Business, Career, Ethics, Government, Politics

  • Q&A: Lobbying as a Career: 28 Aug 2011, Question 3
  • Question: Can lobbying be a proper career choice? Lobbying involves asking for various kind of favors from the government. Is that a profession that someone who values free markets should avoid like the plague?

    Tags: Career, Ethics, Government, Integrity, Politics

  • Q&A: Joining Politically Active Professional Groups: 21 Aug 2011, Question 4
  • Question: Is it proper to join non-mandatory professional groups? Many professional organizations provide great benefits to their members, such as educational opportunities, professional conferences, networking, journal subscriptions, insurance, and product discounts. However, many also engage in lobbying of government officials on issues both related to the profession's direct interests and on issues only loosely associated (i.e. funding for political candidates). While some of this lobbying can be viewed as professional self-defense in an immorally regulated industry, where does one draw the line? Is there a point where joining professional associations is providing sanction to activities you believe are wrong?

    Tags: Business, Career, Ethics, Justice, Politics, Sanction

  • Q&A: Married Couples Separating for Their Careers: 15 May 2011, Question 3
  • Question: Should a married couple ever separate temporarily for the sake of their respective careers? In your 1 May 2011 webcast, you said that long-distance relationships are inherently problematic because the people are living separate lives due to the physical distance between them. Does that mean that committed couples should never separate temporarily for career reasons? If they do, how can they manage that better so as to preserve the relationship?

    Tags: Career, Love, Marriage, Romance

  • Q&A: Productivity Versus Productiveness: 28 Nov 2010, Question 1
  • Question: What is the difference (if any) between 'productiveness' and 'productivity'? People often seem to use the terms interchangeably, but are they the same?

    Tags: Career, Ethics, Productiveness, Productivity

  • Q&A: Ethics of Public Relations: 21 Nov 2010, Question 6
  • Question: Would it be ethical for a public relations practitioner to work for a client whose activities, while legal, potentially damage others--e.g., defend cigarette/alcohol companies, or fast food producers, or asbestos manufacturers?

    Tags: Business, Career, Ethics, Honesty, Integrity, Justice

  • Q&A: Finding a Central Purpose: 21 Nov 2010, Question 5
  • Question: I've been thinking about my central purpose in life (CPL) quite a bit lately. A common thread in my current and former passions is art, and I used to love drawing with pencil and coloring with oil pastels. This week I purchased some inexpensive art supplies and I've been experimenting. It's made me feel pretty darn happy. My hesitation with this though is not subsiding. I don't want to be a starving artist and I can't imagine giving up my career in financial planning, which leaves me with little time for art. Can you perform your CPL "on the side" in your spare time and still feel fulfilled, or must it be what you do full-time? For what it's worth, I eventually want to have a child and home-school, which I think will be tremendously fulfilling. Can my CPL be more than one thing? Do you have any recommendations for further reading on CPL?

    Tags: Career, Central Purpose, Purpose, Work

  • Q&A: Non-Renumerative Work as Productive: 21 Nov 2010, Question 4
  • Question: Ought non-income generating activities such as child rearing, dancing, making friends, etc., be properly considered an exercise of the Objectivist virtue of productivity? In response to my question in an OAC class, Dr. Ghate stated that he interprets Rand's writings to mean that such activities, while rational, ought not be considered "productive" by her definition of the term. Upon further research, I agree with Ghate's interpretation of Rand, but I think I disagree with Rand here. Is it not unusual that someone who chooses motherhood as a career, for instance, is disqualified from practicing the virtue of productivity (assuming she does no other work for pay)? None of the other virtues exclude any rationally acting adult from practicing them. If productivity need to be redefined, would you have an alternate definition to suggest?

    Tags: Career, Finances, Productiveness, Purpose, Work

  • Q&A: Jobs of Necessity Rather Than Passion: 7 Nov 2010, Question 1
  • Question: We are sometimes forced to choose a professional endeavor out of financial necessity rather than professional passion, leading to difficulty in motivation and decreased creative output. How might one improve effectiveness under those circumstances?

    Tags: Business, Career, Finances, Productiveness, Work

  • Q&A: Career Versus Family: 31 Oct 2010, Question 2
  • Question: I am a 20-something girl with ambitious career goals and a strong desire to have a family. How did you decide to pursue a career rather than having children? Do you have any advice about how to go about making the decision?

    Tags: Career, Children, Family, Parenting, Work

  • Podcast: Choosing a Career: 22 Sep 2009
  • Summary: I answer two similar questions from college students on how to choose a career from amongst their wide variety of interests.

    Tags: Career, Introspection, Productiveness, Skills, Values


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