On the next Philosophy in Action Radio, I'll answer questions on the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, living joyfully, defending abortion rights, and more. The live broadcast begins at 8 am PT / 9 MT / 10 CT / 11 ET on Sunday, 20 April 2014. If you can't attend live, be sure to listen to the podcast later.


Judgment

  • Q&A: Mental Illness as an Excuse for Wrongdoing: 28 Jul 2013, Question 3
  • Question: Does mental illness excuse wrong behavior? Recently, a friend of mine apologized for making hurtful and unfair comments to me. (It's not the first time she's done that.) She said that she's been struggling with depression, and she's now on anti-depressants and in therapy. I'm not sure how to take that. I feel for her, yet I also feel like I'm being manipulated into overlooking her bad behavior because she's "sick." How should struggles with mental illness figure into explanations and apologies for wrong behavior – if at all?

    Tags: Communication, Ethics, Friendship, Judgment, Manipulation, Mental Illness, Moral Wrongs, Relationships

  • Q&A: Concern for the Rights of Rights-Violators: 5 May 2013, Question 3
  • Question: Is it wrong to be indifferent to the rights-violations of people who advocate rights-violations? Some celebrities actively promote the violation of rights by lending their support to political groups. For example, former American Idol contestant Krista Branch has actively campaigned against gay marriage on behalf of Focus on the Family. However, in a recent interview, Branch complained that people were pirating her songs. I know that Branch's intellectual property rights should be respected, and I would never pirate her music. Yet I can't feel any sympathy for her, given that she advocates violating other people's rights. I'm of the opinion that people who advocate for the use of force against others should not be spared from the consequences of the kind of culture that creates. Is that wrong? Am I being malevolent? Should I defend her rights, even though she advocates violating my rights?

    Tags: Activism, Celebrities, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Politics, Rights

  • Q&A: Helping a Self-Destructive Friend: 5 May 2013, Question 2
  • Question: Am I obliged to help a friend in trouble due to her own poor choices? I have a friend who is emotionally draining to me, and she is especially "down on her luck" this month. However, her situation is a direct result of especially poor personal choices over the last year, and there is no good path to get her out of the hole of poverty and depression. We don't have much in common other than similar-aged kids, and active participation in a local moms' group, but because I have come to her aid in the past, I feel an unspoken obligation to continue. (Maybe it's guilt, or pity, or empathy?) What are my obligations in a friendship that has recently become more taxing than beneficial? I don't dislike her, and we have many mutual friends, but I just don't think I can muster the time, financial resources, or energy this time to help bail her out of the latest fiasco. Is it morally acceptable to refuse to help? Should I talk to her about why now – or wait until she's less vulnerable?

    Tags: Benevolence, Charity, Communication, Emotions, Ethics, Friendship, Integrity, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Self-Destruction

  • Q&A: Moral Judgments of Obese People: 14 Apr 2013, Question 1
  • Question: Is it right or wrong to condemn people for being obese? Obviously, obese and morbidly obese people have made mistakes in their lives. Are they morally culpable for those mistakes? How should other people judge their characters? If I see an obese person on the street, should I infer that he is lazy and unmotivated? Should I refuse to hire an obese person because I suspect he won't work as hard as a non-obese person? Is obesity a moral failing – or are there other considerations?

    Tags: Culture, Discrimination, Ethics, Food, Health, Judgment, Justice, Medicine, Nutrition, Obesity

  • Q&A: Rooting for Antiheroes: 25 Nov 2012, Question 2
  • Question: Is it wrong to root for antiheroes in movies? I often root for characters like Daniel Ocean (of Ocean's 11, 12, etc.), Erik Draven (of The Crow), Harry Callahan (a.k.a. Dirty Harry), and "Mad" Max. Should I instead seek out movies with more consistently good heroes?

    Tags: Aesthetics, Character, Culture, Ethics, Film, Judgment, Justice, Literature, Personality, Progress, Psychology, Respect

  • Q&A: Griping Versus Moral Judgment: 18 Nov 2012, Question 2
  • Question: What's the difference between griping about people and morally judging them? I try to be careful in my moral judgments of others, and then act accordingly. However, most people don't seem to do that: they bitch about other people out of annoyance, but then do nothing to solve their problems. What's wrong with such bitching? How can I explain my objections to such bitching in a friendly way? How can I avoid being bitched-to or bitched-about?

    Tags: Communication, Communication, Conflict, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Relationships, Relationships

  • Q&A: Judging People Struggling with Temptations: 16 Sep 2012, Question 1
  • Question: Does a person deserve extra moral praise for acting rightly despite strong contrary emotions? How does overcoming strong emotions in order to do the right thing (or refrain from doing the wrong thing) factor into morally judging a person? If person A has no emotional conflict and thus does the right thing more or less "effortlessly," while person B takes the same correct action despite strong emotional motivation to act otherwise, does person B deserve any extra moral credit for the amount of emotional or mental effort he made? Or is moral judgment to be made solely on the basis of actions, with internal mental effort being irrelevant?

    Tags: Character, Christianity, Emotions, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Pleasure, Pride, Psycho-Epistemology, Psychology, Self-Control, Temptation, Willpower

  • Q&A: Multiculturalism and Tolerance: 15 Jul 2012, Question 1
  • Question: What's wrong with multiculturalism? Many people think that "multiculturalism" just means being tolerant of people with different cultural practices than your own. Is that right? What is multiculturalism? What are some examples of it? What's wrong with it, if anything?

    Tags: Culture, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Multiculturalism, Politics, Race, Relativism

  • Q&A: Objectively Assessing Yourself: 17 Jun 2012, Question 1
  • Question: How can a person objectively assess his own character? If a person has a good character, then he'll recognize that fact. But if a person has a bad character, then he'll probably deceive himself into thinking himself good. So it seems likely that every person will think that he has a good character, even when that's not true. So, is objective assessment of one's own character possible? If so, how?

    Tags: Character, Ethics, Introspection, Judgment, Justice, Objectivity

  • Q&A: Giving the Benefit of the Doubt: 4 Mar 2012, Question 1
  • Question: When should we give another person the benefit of the doubt? Often, people say that public figures facing some scandal should be given the benefit of the doubt? What does that mean in theory and in practice? When ought people give the benefit of the doubt? Is doing so a matter of generosity or justice?

    Tags: Epistemology, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Rationality

  • Q&A: Judging Young Adults Fairly: 15 Jan 2012, Question 4
  • Question: Is it fair to judge a person's intellect or other qualities of character purely based on his age? I am 16 and am facing problems with some people who seem to think that my views aren't clear even to me just because "I am a lazy teen with no experience in life." Is that unjust? Should I try to show them they are wrong about me or is it not worth it? If I should try, how might I be effective?

    Tags: Ethics, Intelligence, Judgment, Justice, Young Adults

  • Q&A: Dealing with Temperamental People: 15 Jan 2012, Question 3
  • Question: Should people be willing to "walk on eggshells" around temperamental people? Some people – often very talented – are known to be highly temperamental. They'll explode in anger if others disagree with them, make innocent mistakes, or just act differently than they'd prefer. Is that a moral failing, and if so, what is its source? How should people around them act? When and how much should others try to placate them?

    Tags: Business, Conflict, Emotions, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Psychology, Rationality, Rationality, Relationships

  • Q&A: Mutual Unprovable Accusations of Wrongdoing: 15 Jan 2012, Question 2
  • Question: How should a rational person evaluate unproven accusations of serious wrongdoing about people he deals with? I recently heard some information about a business associate's dealings with another of his associates that, if true, would make me reconsider doing business with him. However, his side of the story is that the other person is the one who acted wrongly. This is a serious matter, and it's clear that one or both of them acted very badly, but since I was not personally involved and the only information I have is of a "he said/she said" nature, I am not sure how to decide what I should do. Am I right to consider the information I heard at all, since I can't confirm it?

    Tags: Business, Conflict, Epistemology, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Rationality, Relationships

  • Q&A: Working for a Minister: 6 Nov 2011, Question 1
  • Question: Is working for a minister giving religion moral sanction? As an atheist, I once worked for an ordained minster who was the owner of a gallery. I became his manager when I made it clear that I was an atheist, but that I was a good framing manager. I don't think I gave him a moral sanction for his irrationality by working for him under those terms. What do you think?

    Tags: Atheism, Business, Christianity, Ethics, Integrity, Judgment, Justice, Religion, Work

  • Q&A: Judging Young Adults: 16 Oct 2011, Question 1
  • Question: How should I judge my college-age peers, given the upbringing they've had? I know that we are ultimately responsible for our actions and our character, yet character is also heavily influenced by our culture, education, and upbringing. I was raised roughly the same way as my peers were, and I went through the same standardized, state-school educational system. Yet I did not end up like them – largely due to the fact that I read Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged. I got to see an alternative to the ideas offered to me, unlike most of my peers. Without that, I could have ended up just like anyone else. Knowing that, I try to treat my peers gently – meaning not taking the bad ideas they hold seriously, showing a benevolent warmth to them, and not focusing too hard on negatively judging their characters. But am I doing right, or should I be harsher in my judgment and treatment of them?

    Tags: Culture, Education, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Young Adults

  • Q&A: Moral Standards for Public Figures: 21 Aug 2011, Question 1
  • Question: Should public figures be held to higher moral standards? Public figures – like actors, politicians, and athletes – are often lambasted in the media for committing commonplace wrongs like dishonesty and hypocrisy. Is that fair? If Michelle Obama is an outspoken opponent of childhood obesity and lists the things my children and I shouldn't eat, is she a hypocrite for publicly indulging in junk food? Should I not value Tiger Woods as a professional golfer with exceptional talent because he screwed around on his wife?

    Tags: Ethics, Fame, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Politics, Privacy

  • Q&A: Meeting Estranged Former Friends: 7 Aug 2011, Question 4
  • Question: What should you do when you meet someone who treated you badly in the past? Recently, I ran into a person at an event who I used to know as a fellow member of a local discussion group. When he left the group about a year ago, he posted a long rambling e-mail to our mailing list condemning us for all kinds of imaginary sins. The letter was unfair and rude – not to mention wholly unnecessary. I avoided talking to him when I saw him recently, but I wish I'd said something pointed to him. What, if anything, should I have said?

    Tags: Communication, Conflict, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Relationships

  • Q&A: Real Life Evil: 3 Jul 2011, Question 3
  • Question: Are people in real life as evil as in Ayn Rand's novel Atlas Shrugged? In Atlas Shrugged, Ayn Rand presents almost every bad person as very evil. I understand the purpose of that in the novel, but are their equivalents in real life (meaning the legislators passing similar laws nowadays) as evil as that – or are some of them just misguided or even stupid? In other words, do real-life people act on the death premise and hate the good for being the good? I just can't imagine that. Am I being too optimistic?

    Tags: Activism, Atlas Shrugged, Ayn Rand, Ethics, Evil, Judgment, Justice, Objectivism, Sanction

  • Q&A: Deflating Bragging Looters: 19 Jun 2011, Question 5
  • Question: What is the best way to handle "proud" looters? What is the safest and most effective way to deal with the people who ignorantly brag about the fact that they are free-loaders on others, including using government programs and "public" funds?

    Tags: Communication, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Politics, Welfare

  • Q&A: The Evil of Immanuel Kant: 12 Jun 2011, Question 2
  • Question: Was Immanuel Kant evil rather than just wrong – and if so, why and how? I understand that Kant's ideas are very wrong, even evil. But couldn't he have been honestly mistaken, perhaps not taking his own work seriously? Given that he never advocated or did anything even remotely comparable to Hitler's genocide, why should he be regarded as evil, if at all?

    Tags: Ethics, Immanuel Kant, Judgment, Justice, Metaphysics, Philosophy

  • Q&A: The Process of Forgiveness: 5 Jun 2011, Question 1
  • Question: What is the proper process of forgiveness? In your March 6th episode, you spoke about forgiveness from the perspective of the person wronged. However, imagine that you're the person who has done wrong to someone else, thereby harming him. What should you do now? How can you prove to that person that you're not as bad as you seemed at that time? What should you do if the other person isn't willing to hear you out?

    Tags: Ethics, Forgiveness, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs

  • Q&A: Ending Relationships: 6 Mar 2011, Question 5
  • Question: What is the best way to cut someone out of one's life? When ending a friendship with someone is one obliged to give them reasons or is a simple "I no longer want to have a friendship with you" sufficient? What if the person would not accept the reasons or maybe even be driven to revenge or depression by such an action?

    Tags: Conflict, Friendship, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Relationships

  • Q&A: The Necessity of Forgiveness: 6 Mar 2011, Question 2
  • Question: Is forgiveness necessary? Religious connotations aside, popular psychology often tells us that we must forgive those who have hurt us, even if they are no longer in our lives. It's "healthy". Is forgiveness really necessary to emotional healing? Should I forgive, if the offending party hasn't recognized his/her fault?

    Tags: Ethics, Forgiveness, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Redemption

  • Q&A: Regrets over Past Mistakes: 6 Mar 2011, Question 1
  • Question: Does a rational person feel regret over past mistakes? Clearly it is most productive to focus on the positive: What can you learn from your mistakes? Etc. Does this mean regret can be eliminated? What do you make of people who say they never have any regrets?

    Tags: Emotions, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs

  • Q&A: Buying an Evildoer's Book: 27 Feb 2011, Question 5
  • Question: Would you recommend buying Nathaniel Branden's Vision of Ayn Rand or not? Given Nathaniel Branden's history of dishonest attacks on Ayn Rand and Objectivism, would you recommend that anyone buy this book? (It's the book version of his "Basic Principles of Objectivism" course.) I've thought about buying it, but I don't want to support that man in any way.

    Tags: Business, Ethics, Evil, Judgment, Justice, Sanction

  • Q&A: Dating a Pot-Smoker: 16 Jan 2011, Question 6
  • Question: Is it proper to date a girl who smokes pot? This woman, while not being an Objectivist, has many great qualities like being smart, attractive, funny, pro-reason and pro-man in general. She, however, likes to smoke marijuana. She says that it provides a great pleasure and relaxes her body and mind after a long day of work. What should I do about it? Confront her? Immediately break up with her?

    Tags: Addiction, Alcohol/Drugs, Dating, Egoism, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Relationships, Romance, Self-Interest

  • Q&A: Online Jerks: 16 Jan 2011, Question 3
  • Question: Why are some people such jerks on the internet? Some seemingly decent people become downright malicious bastards on the internet, particularly when posting anonymously. Why is that? What does such behavior say about a person's moral character? How can a person keep his manners, his benevolence, and his cool in full force when online?

    Tags: Character, Communication, Conflict, Ethics, Internet, Judgment, Justice, Relationships, Social Media

  • Q&A: Judging People Efficiently: 16 Jan 2011, Question 2
  • Question: How can I judge people more efficiently? It would be helpful to be more efficient in judging whether certain individuals are appropriate for a friendship. Sometimes it takes me a long time to decide whether I would like to be friends with someone or not. It takes me even longer to decide whether I would like to be in a romantic relationship with someone. How can I speed this process up? What are some key factors that might help me make these types of decisions more efficiently?

    Tags: Dating, Dating, Ethics, Friendship, Judgment, Justice, Relationships, Romance

  • Q&A: Judgments of Actions and Ideas: 16 Jan 2011, Question 1
  • Question: How does one properly judge a person's actions and ideas? I've read that one can judge a person's ideas as good or evil based on whether they are true or false, respectively. I've also read/heard that it's usually better to judge a person's actions since people often aren't very exact in their ideas and in what they say. Should you judge a persons ideas or actions? Or both? And, what is the proper way to judge a person's ideas and actions?

    Tags: Ethics, Evil, Judgment, Justice, Sanction

  • Q&A: Judging Mixed People: 2 Jan 2011, Question 3
  • Question: How do you judge people of mixed premises? Many people are of "mixed" premises. How does one develop close and personal friendships or pursue long-term, serious, romantic relationships when many people are not consistently rational or moral? How does one judge such people objectively as to their worthiness for friendship or as a potential romantic interest?

    Tags: Conflict, Dating, Ethics, Friendship, Judgment, Justice, Philosophy, Relationships, Relationships, Sanction

  • Q&A: Toleration as a Virtue: 12 Dec 2010, Question 3
  • Question: Is toleration (or tolerance) a virtue?

    Tags: Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Relativism, Tolerance

  • Q&A: Cultural Equality: 28 Nov 2010, Question 6
  • Question: Are all cultures equal? How can you prohibit or restrict anyone's cultural norms or say they're better or worse than our culture? Is there an objective barometer by which this can be achieved?

    Tags: Culture, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Multiculturalism, Politics, Relativism

  • Q&A: The Redemption of Michael Vick: 28 Nov 2010, Question 3
  • Question: How should we judge NFL quarterback Michael Vick? As an animal lover, I was appalled when the NFL allowed Michael Vick to play pro football again after his dog-fighting episodes. But now that he's doing well, part of me wants to cheer for him, telling myself that he's a "reformed man who deserves a second chance". Is that rational of me? How do we know if someone has truly turned over a new leaf morally after prior bad acts?

    Tags: Animals, Character, Ethics, Football, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Redemption, Sports

  • Q&A: Cutting Ties with an Abusive Parent: 14 Nov 2010, Question 3
  • Question: If you were physically abused as a child, but have grown up and "gotten over it," is it still reasonable to demand justice if only in the form of refusing to deal with the abuser?

    Tags: Adult Children, Ethics, Family, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs, Parenting, Violence

  • Q&A: Irresponsible Adult Children: 31 Oct 2010, Question 5
  • Question: How would you treat an adult child who wishes to move back home after a history of poor self-control and irresponsible choices?

    Tags: Adult Children, Ethics, Family, Family, Judgment, Justice, Parenting, Rationality, Responsibility, Self-Control

  • Q&A: Chronic Complainers: 31 Oct 2010, Question 4
  • Question: What are your thoughts on people who complain about their problems but never pursue to solve them, or, worse, actively evade and ignore solutions that confront them? E.g. a student who complains about his budget but continues to spend irrationally.

    Tags: Communication, Ethics, Judgment, Justice, Moral Wrongs


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